The Core Ideological Conflict: Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up

October 03, 2016 Tagged with: politics

At its absolute core, the difference between conservatives and liberals seems to boil down to one thing: liberals believe that society can be fixed by grand architecture, while conservatives believe it can only be fixed by individual action.

Call it the difference between “top-down” and “bottom-up.”

As would be expected, each side disagrees with the other:

In A Conflict of Visions: Ideological Origins of Political Struggles, Thomas Sowell discusses the “constrained and unconstrained views.”  He says, in part:

Visions rest ultimately on some sense of the nature of man—not simply his existing practices but his ultimate potential and ultimate limitations. Those who see the potentialities of human nature as extending far beyond what is currently manifested have a social vision quite different from those who see human beings as tragically limited creatures whose selfish and dangerous impulses can be contained only by social contrivances which themselves produce unhappy side effects.

Sowell argues that attempts of government to equalize the playing field just make the situation worse because natural human self-centeredness will cause the penalized group to resist and rebel. Citizens will resist social architecture.

In How Now Shall We Live?, Chuck Colson talks of the liberal trend towards utopianism, which is the quest for a more perfect society through human intellect without regard to basic human character.

Scientific utopianism…expands government control while gradually sapping citizens of moral responsibility, economic initiative, and personal prudence.

In Colson’s view, expansion of government causes dependence and encourages humans to look outside themselves for solutions to problems, when the ultimate solution is based in human character.

Related to this, Dennis Prager says, in this video from Prager University, that:

Conservatives believe that the way to improve society is almost always through the moral improvement of the individual. [...Liberals] on the other hand, believe that the way to a better society is almost always through doing battle with society’s moral failings.

There’s clearly a common theme: in the conservative’s view, society can only be fixed from the bottom up.

The liberal response to this aggregate point might be found in The Tragedy of the Commons, a 1968 essay (which has since become a generic economic theory) that says there are situations where no one person is incentivized to act unselfishly, and thus all will continue to act in their own self-interest toward mutual destruction.

The example from the essay is a group herdsmen keeping animals with access to a common pasture.

As a rational being, each herdsman seeks to maximise his gain. Explicitly or implicitly, he asks, “What is the utility to me of adding one more animal to my herd?”

Each herdsman gains from adding one animal, but the common pasture can only support so many animals. So while there is an individual gain, there is a common loss because the pasture will eventually be unable to support all the animals:

Adding together the component partial utilities, the rational herdsman concludes that the only sensible course for him to pursue is to add another anomal to his herd. And another; and another....But this is the conclusion reached by each and every rational herdsman sharing a commons. Therein is the tragedy. Each man is locked into a system tha compels him to increase his herd without limit–in a world that is limited.

In the liberal view, citizens are locked in an arms race with each other. If we act unselfishly to the betterment of others, we have no guarantee they will do the same. Thus, the world is full of selfish actors heading toward mutual destruction and it therefore needs external regulation and architecture to ensure we act in a way that prevents negative side effects.

To a liberal, government regulation is often the only way to force citizens to acknowledge that particular individual efforts are having a negative effect on society as a whole, and force collective change for everyone’s long-term benefit.

This is also represented by the economic principle of an externality:

[...] the cost or benefit that affects a party who did not choose to incur that cost or benefit. Economists often urge governments to adopt policies that “internalize” an externality, so that costs and benefits will affect mainly parties who choose to incur them.

Left unchecked, humans unfairly inflict externalities on others. Actions have side effects that negatively affect others, and this can only be curtailed by regulation and legal or social coercion.

So, at its core, the difference between Right and Left appears to come down to how one interprets human nature and the ensuing direction from which we approach our problems:

The answer to that question seems to be the heart of political conflict, especially in the United States.

Comments

cmadler says:

I think this left-right viewpoint represents one duality in governance, but is a gross oversimplification when it comes to contemporary US politics. I find it more helpful to take a two-dimensional approach like the Nolan chart or the political compass.

For example, on a one-dimensional left-right continuum, the remaining candidates closest to Bernie Sanders are Jill Stein and Hillary Clinton. But when viewed two-dimensionally, Sanders is about as close to Gary Johnson as he is to Clinton (see the charts at https://www.politicalcompass.org/uselection2016 – the center is based on European politics, but I think the relative positions of US politicians are about right).

The other problem, of course is that most people – and yes, politicians are people too ;-) – are not always philosophically consistent. My perception is that many Republicans favor a government that takes a lessez faire approach to many issues seen as primarily economic, but an authoritarian approach in other ways (policing, borders, privacy, moral issues). In recent history, Democrats tended to favor more government involvement in the economy, but less government in other areas (although I don’t think that’s really true on either count any longer).

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